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Ethics are forms of behavior and rules that people in a society must obey. These are necessary for the order of society. Ethics discipline people. Well, are these rules acceptable by everyone? What would the world be like without these rules? Are ethics constant and objective? Are connected religion and morality?
People have been living together for centuries. Because they need each other to survive. There is a need for rules to live together. Thanks to these rules, there is no disorder or confusion. Some philosophers think that moral actions are the goal. For example, according to Epicurus, the goal is happiness. On the other hand, according to Kant, people who follow the moral rules act with the sense of obligation.
When a person is in moral action, whether she is free or not is an important issue in the philosophy. There are three ideas in this issue. The first idea is indeterminism. Human is free in moral action. She chooses her behavior on her own will. The second idea is determinism. The idea defends the opposite. It says that Because people live in society, they must follow the rules of society. If they do not, they are punished. So, there is no freedom of will. The third is otodeterminism. It says that she puts her own rules herself.
People do not like rules. These rules make people's lives better. Sometimes the rules put them under pressure. But if there were no rules and everyone would behave as they want, the world would be an uninhabitable place. Imagine a world where everyone does what he wants. Freedom is a concept that must be for everyone. But “The freedom of the person ends where the freedom of others begins.” People need rules to not bother each other. The reasons for the emergence of the rules are the problems they have lived up to this time.
Some thoughts say that religion and morality complement each other. The problematic of the moral is to be kindness. Religion helps people to do good things without the force. To lie, to steal, to slander is wrong according to both religion and morality. Another idea defends that religion should be kept away from morality.
In fact, religion emerged after the existence of people. So, these people were irreligious. Does that mean they're immoral? Of course, no. According to my opinion, there is no common moral rules for everyone. For example, most of us think that theft is a very wrong thing. But I remember reading that in a tribe fame of the person who steal is great. So, the more you steal, the more valuable you are for the tribe. But being a good person is moral rule for everyone; to treat animals and people well, to believe that women and men are equal, to not harm the environment we live in etc. And I must say I did not defend theft. Because theft is to get what someone else has worked without giving effort.
As a result, we should live according to our conscience, not according to moral rules. The pressure of people can be difficult for us. But our conscience should not be heavy for us. And if everyone behaves according to their conscience, no one is responsible for the mistakes of the others. We can never escape our conscience.
Aşağıda başlığı verilen ve ekte tam metni sunulan makalemin İngiliz Dili ve Edebiyatı Kulübü Dergisi’nde yayımlanmasını istiyorum. Makalenin daha önce başka bir dergide yayımlanmadığını ya da yayımlanması için gönderilmediğini taahhüt ederim.
Ekteki yazımın yayımlanmasını kabul ettiğimi, herhangi bir eser/fikir hırsızlığı, intihal vb. durumlarda İngiliz Dili ve Edebiyatı Kulübü Dergisi’nin sorumlu olmadığını, her türlü yükümlülüğün bana ait olduğunu biliyorum. Saygılarımla gereğini arz ederim.